Liquid Nitrogen Fertilizer
Many crop producers have various ways of applying nitrogen to their crops. Timing, method of application, rate and source of nitrogen as well as the use of additives vary from one state to the other and mostly between neighbors. Under a given weather condition, nitrogen can disappear from the soil between the application time and crop intake. In this article, we shall discuss crop production practices that have great potential for success in handling and managing nitrogen fertilizer.
Great nitrogen management gives sufficient nitrogen to the crop to maximize yielding of crops as well as profits while at the same time reducing losses to air and water. With nitrogen in place, environmental and economic successes overlap. Every farmer wants nitrogen to end up in their crop. Therefore the best nitrogen management depicted here as are aspects from economic, environmental and production viewpoints.
Liquid nitrogen fertilizer timing
The best time of liquid nitrogen fertilizer applications is to use the fertilizer when is almost time for crop uptake. Managing nitrogen in this manner will reduce losses from the farm and will ensure there is adequate nitrogen available in the crop during the crucial periods of growth. These merits, however, must be controlled against risks that are brought about by a small time window for nitrogen application.
Nitrogen uptake normally takes place when there is maximum growth taking place, during this period; the risk of losing nitrogen is almost none.
Timing and risk of liquid nitrogen loss
Liquid nitrogen fertilizer can be lost from the fields especially in areas that have moderate to very heavy rainfall. The season with greatest of losing nitrogen is in spring. At this time, the soil is normally very wet. At this time also, the crop growth start to push water out of the soil. This risk is minimal to crops that started to grow rapidly in early stages of spring, such as grass and wheat. Early spring application of liquid nitrogen fertilizer for some crops such as milo and corn can result to nitrogen loss via denitrification. These risks become even more on poorly drained soils.
To reduce the risk, you can use nitrogen stabilizer of side dress application of liquid nitrogen. There is high nitrogen uptake when the plants are at the growth period. When you apply the fertilizer at the beginning of the period, you will less likely experience nitrogen loss.
Applying liquid nitrogen to the period of optimum growth
Many farmers have now changed the application of nitrogen fertilizers to applying it near the period of optimum growth. For instance, wheat and other grains used to be fertilized before planting during fall. However, nowadays people apply nitrogen fertilizer in spring.
Cost of liquid nitrogen fertilizer
Many farmers as well as advisors relater the liquid nitrogen fertilizer costs with the prices of urea and by doing this it shows that the liquid fertilizer range from about 30 percent and 70 percent dear per one unit of liquid nitrogen. However, when using per unit applied cost is compared depending on the amount of nitrogen applied.
Losses of liquid nitrogen fertilizer
Liquid nitrogen fertilizer is somewhat similar to the solid nitrogen fertilizer of the same design. Most sources of liquid nitrogen have urea as a major ingredient in their make-up. However, these nitrogen sources are extremely volatile on the surface of the soil when there is moisture, carbonates in the solid or if a Ph. Is more than 7.
The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer
This is one of the most crucial nitrogen management variables, both environmentally and economically. The amount of liquid nitrogen fertilizer required to maximize the crop yield usually differs from one land to the other and from one part of the land to the other.
The main tool for predicting the rate of nitrogen fertilizer in the soil is called yield goal. However, the level of yield plays a very small role in determining the amount of fertilizer that is required by the plant. Another factor is the variation in the ability of the soil to supply nitrogen to the crop, which is the very factor that determines the amount of nitrogen fertilizer is required to maximize yields.
Sources of liquid nitrogen fertilizer
Anhydrous ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea ammonium nitrate and urea are the main sources of nitrogen fertilizer. They are all great fertilizer materials. Most people choose the source of fertilizer in relation to fertilizer application method, placement or timing. There are management practices that are required for ammonium nitrate; the broadcast services work very well. Do not apply urea as well as the UAB solution.
Never mix propiconazole with nitrogen sources. This is because the translocation of these products to the tip of the leaf will cause bad marginal and tip scorch in cereals. The amine formulations do not work well with nitrogen as a carrier element, salt out occurs. You really need to take caution when you are consulting fertilizer companies. The compatibility charts that they have rarely show biological compatibility or may not show the damage rating. Although there are certain types of mixtures that that are compatible they can minimize selectivity of herbicides and hence may cause damage to the crop.
Leaf scorch is also called leaf damage. Leaf scorch from the liquid nitrogen fertilizer comes in two main forms. The first one is called spotting and the second one is called tip and margin burn. These forms of damage are very unique and different at the same time.
Spotting is normally evident in ammonium nitrate solution UAN and ammonium sulphate solution, with ammonium nitrate solution being the most potent. This is factor is caused mainly by the oily nature and extreme salt index as well as hydroscopicity of the elements that make them harmful to leaf tissue when in high concentration and in contact.
Canopy retention also shows this kind of burn from poorly set-up nozzles as well as wind. Leaf burn caused by spotting is transportation to localized regions from regions with high concentration of salt in the fertilizer solution cause the cell to burst and also necrosis. Marginal burn and leaf tip are caused by rapid intake and transportation without metabolism of urea.
Application methods and placement
Nitrogen fertilizers have a wide range of application methods, including surface banding, broadcast application coulter injection, knife and application with the planter. The choice of method of application is determined by the source of nitrogen.
Broadcast applications are normally used with urea, UAN solution and ammonium nitrate. The broadcast application of urea can lead to significant loss of fertilizer nitrogen to the air. To reduce or prevent the loss of nitrogen, you can treat the urea with Agrotan before you broadcast it, or you can include the urea in the solid with tillage. You also irrigate within 4 days.
Broadcasting the UAN solution is not advisable when the levels of residues are extremely high. This is because of the nitrogen droplets being tied up with the residue. To reduce the nitrogen droplets from being tied up, you can dribble the solution, coulter injection or knife to get rid of it.
Broadcast UAN solution is also prone to volatile loss of nitrogen to the air just like urea but only a small amount will be lost. This is because UAN solution contains 50 percent of nitrogen in the urea. The same treatments that reduce concentration of urea are the same treatments that can work on this solution.
Surface banding can also be a great when the UAN solution is the only source for nitrogen and a field with residue cover and the farmer doesn’t want to inject solution.
Injection is crucial for any anhydrous ammonia in order to retain the fertilizer in the field. This is because ammonia normally evaporates into gas as soon as it leaves a pressurized tank. Avoid injection when the soil is wet. This is because wet soil causes poor closer of the applicator and hence letting ammonia vanish from the slot. Injection of ammonia works very well at medium soil moisture but can also be successful in dry soil that are heavily textured.
Application of liquid nitrogen with starter fertilizer
This method givers high yield if applied as per instructions.
Equipment and corrosion
All solutions of fertilizers are salty in nature and are very corrosive to a certain degree. Ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate based solutions are the two most aggressive solutions and can rapidly destroy brass, copper, galvanizing, bronze and any form of carbon steel. It becomes essential to use stainless steel or polyethylene in application equipment. Urea solutions usually cause rust. However, urea can be stored in carbon steel tanks, and pumped with alloy pumps or carbon steel,
It is not advisable to put UAN solutions via the sprayers with high amounts of circuitry like camera sprayers or weed seekers without protecting the circuitry. There are a number of spray one protectants that are available in the market. Some people use vegetable oils or crop oils via a hand sprayer to protect the components that need to be protected from corrosion